Study of Structural Properties of Mesoporous Carbon From Fructose with Zinc Borosilicate Activator
Tutik Setianingsih, Indriana Kartini, Yateman Arryanto
J. Pure App. Chem. Res. Vol 3, No 3 (2014), pp. 114-122
Submitted: February 14, 2014     Accepted: June 20, 2014     Published: August 21, 2014


Cover Image

Structural properties, including pore structure, functional group of carbon surface, and crystal structure of carbon built by zinc borosilicate (ZBS) and ZnCl2 (Z) have been investigated in this work. Physically, ZBS and ZnCl2 may act as template of carbon, whereas the Zn(II) cation act as chemical activator of carbonization. All precursors of ZBS (silicagel, boric acid, and ZnCl2) may act as catalysts of caramelization. The caramelization was conducted hydrothermally at 85oC and thermally 130oC. The carbonization was conducted at 450oC. The resulted carbons were washed by using HF 48% solution, 1M HCl solution, and aquadest respectively. The solid products were characterized by using nitrogen gas adsorption, infrared spectrophotometry, X-ray diffraction, and Transmition Electron Microscopy. Result of research showed that ZBS built larger mesopore volume, larger pore domination of pore size, more hydrophobic carbon, and more amorf than ZnCl2.

Keywords : zinc borosilicate; ZnCl2; mesoporous carbon; fructose; structural properties
Full Text: PDF


. Lorenc-Grabowska, E., Gryglewic, G., Dyes Pigments, 2007, 75, 136-142 [2]. Fernandez , JA., Morishita , T., Toyoda, M., Inagaki, M., Stoeckli , F., Centeno, TA., J. Power Sources, 2008, 175, 675–679. [3]. Xia, Z., Liao, L., Zhao, S., Mater. Res. Bull., 2009, 44, 1626–1629. [4]. Vinu, A., Mori, T., Ariga, K., Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater., 2006, 7, 753–771. [5]. Lee, HI., Stucky, G.D., Kim J.H., Pak C., Chang H., Kim, J.M., Adv. Mater., 2011, 23, 2357–2361. [6]. Gao, P., Wang, A., Wang, X., and Zhang, T., Chem. Mater., 2008, 20,1881–1888. [7]. Deng, Y., Liu, C., Yu, T., Liu, F., Zhang, F., Wan, Y., Zhang, L., Wang, C., Tu, B., Webley, P.A., Wang, H., Zhao, D., Chem. Mater., 2007, 19, 3271-3277 3271. [8]. Kim, J., Lee, J., Hyeon , T., Carbon, 2004, 42, 2711–2719. [9]. Han, S., Yun, Y., Park, K.W., Sung, Y.E., Hyeon, T., Adv. Mater., 2003, 15 (22), 1922-1925. [10]. Chaiya, C. and Boonamnuayvitaya, V., Adsorption of Toluene Vapor on Mesoporous Activated Carbon Produced From Coffee Residue, Proceedings of The 2nd Regional Conference on Energy Technology Towards A Clean Environment 12-14 February 2013, Phuket, Thailand, pp 1-7. [11]. Teng, H., Lin, Y.C., and Hsu, L.Y., J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc., 2000, 50, 1940-1946. [12]. Onal, Y., Basar, A.C., Sanci-Ozdemir, C., and Erdogan, S, J. Hazard Mater., 2006, 1698-2141. [13]. Hayashi, J., Kazehaya, A., Muroyama, K., Watkinson, AP., Carbon, 2000, 38, 1873-1878. [14]. Zhu, Z., Li, AM., Xia, M., Wan, J., and Zhang, Q., Chinese J. Polym. Sci.,2008, 26 (5), 645−651. [15]. Huang, Y., Hu, S., Zuo, S., Xu, Z., Han, C., Shen, J., J. Mater. Chem., 2009, 19, 7759 – 7764. [16]. Yoon, S.O., Jo, Kim, KS., Kim, S., Ceram. Int., 2008, 34, 2155–2157. [17] Eltepe, HE., The Development of Zinc Borate Production Process, A Dissertation of Master of Science, 2004, Chemical Engineering Department, Izmir Institute of Technology, Turkey. [18] Armelaoa, L., Fabriziob, M., Gialanellac, S., Zordand , F., Thin Solid Films, 2001, 394, 90–96. [19] Falcone, J., 1982, The Effect of Degree of Polymerization of Silicates on Their Interactions with Cations in Solution, ACS Symp. Ser., Vol. 194. [20] Shriver, D.F., Atkins, P.W., Langford, C.H., Inorganic Chemistry, 1990, Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford. [21] Bowser, J., Inorganic Chemistry, 1993,, New York [22] Lowel, S., Shield, JE., Thomas, MA., Thommes, M., 2004, Characterization of Porous Solids and Powders : Surface Area, Pore Size, and Density, Kluwer Academic Publishers, London, 38 – 40. [23] Peng Gao, Aiqin Wang, Xiaodong Wang, and Tao Zhang, Chem. Mater., 2008, 20, 1881–1888 [24] Lei , Z., Xiao, Y., Dang, L., Bai, S., Lizhen, Micropor. Mesopor. Mat., 2007, doi:10.1016/j.micromeso.2007.04.035 [25] Deng,Y.,Chong L, Ting Y, Feng L, Fuqiang Z, Ying W, Chem. Mater., 2007, 19, 3271-3277 [26] Cao, Y., Cao, J., Zheng, M., Liu, J., Ji, G., J. Solid State Chem., 2007, 180, 792–798. [27] Cesano, F., Scarano, D., Bertarione, S., Bonino, F., Damin, A., Bordiga, S., Prestipino, C., Lamberti, C., Adriano Zecchina, J. Photoch. Photobio. A: Chem., 2008, 196, 143–153. [28] Saudi, H. A. Sallam, H. A. , Abdullah, K., Phys. Mater. Chem., 2014, 2(1), 20-24. [29] Boscolo, M., Luiz, G., Sobrinho, A., Benedito, S., Neto, L., Franco, DW., J. AOAC Int., 2002, 85 ( 3 ), 744-750. [30] Kuster, BFM., Eindhoven, Starch, 1990, 42 (8), 314-321. [31] Wan, Y., Qian, X., Jia, N., Wang, Z., Li, H., and Zhao, D., Chem. Mater., 2008, 20, 1012–1018. [32] Lufrano, F., Staiti, P., Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., 2010, 5, 903 – 916. [33] Shen, W., Yang, X., Guo,Q., Liu, Y., Song, Y., Han, Z., Sun, Q., Cheng, J., Mater. Lett., 2006, 60, 3517–3521. [34] Zou, L., Huang, Y., Huang, Q., Wang C., Mater. Chem. Phys., 2003, 82, 654 – 662. [35] Shen, W., Li, Z., and Liu, Y., Recent Patents on Chemical Engineering, 2008, 1, 27-40. [36] Nwosu,FO., Olu-Owolabi,BI., Adebowale,KO., Henle,T., Schwarzenbolz,U., Biorem. Biodiv. Bioavail., 2009, 3(2), 89-95. [37] Aik Chong Lua, Ting Yang, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 2005, 290, 505-513. [38] Chayande, Singha, SP., and Yenkie, MKN., Chem. Sci. Trans., 2013, 2(3), 835-840. [39] Allwar, 2012, Characteristics Of Micro- And Mesoporous Structure And Surface Chemistry Of Activated Carbons Produced by Oil Palm Shell, International Conference On Chemical, Ecology and Environmental Sciences (ICEES 2012), Bangkok. [40] Naseh, MV., Khodadadi, AA., Mortazavi, Y., Sahraei, AO., Pourfayaz, F., and Sedghi, SM., World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 2009, 49, 177-179. [41] Malakshmy,R., Indraneel, P., Viswanathan,B., Surface Functionalities of Nitric Acid treated carbon – A Destiny Functional Theory Based Vibrational Analysis, 2009, 48A, 352 – 356. [42] Puziya , AM., Poddubnayaa, OI., Mart´ınez-Alonsob,A., Sua´rez-Garc´ıab, F., Tasco, JMD., Carbon, 2002, 40, 1493–1505. [43] Viswanathan, B., Neel, PI., and Varadarajan,TK., 2009, Methods of Activation and Specific Applications of Carbon Materials, Thesis, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, India, p.5


  • There are currently no refbacks.